|The following information was formerly published on the now
nonexistent Black Wolf Rattery website:
Breeder "Red Flags"
There are several "red flags" an adopter should look for when
picking a breeder from which to obtain rats. These "red
flags" are warning signs that may indicate a breeder who is
irresponsible, unethical, or disreputable. For more details,
click on the statements below.
1) Breeder has “too many” animals.
2) Breeder always has litters available or breeds multiple litters
at a time.
3) Breeder fosters out half their litters in order to breed more.
4) Breeder produces litters he/she has no intention of keeping
babies from or "just to have a litter".
5) Breeder breeds for adopters, to meet a demand, or make a profit.
6) Breeder breeds immature animals often.
7) Breeder weans babies at less than four weeks of age.
8 ) Breeder kills (culls) babies for reasons other than as a last
resort for an untreatable or incurable disease or injury.
9) Breeder does not keep track of the health and temperament of
their lines. Breeder expects adopters to make special
effort to keep in touch.
10) Breeder claims their lines are free of all health problems or
11) Breeder’s only goals are focused on only one of the following:
health, temperament, type, or color.
12) Breeder does not use proper standardized names for the varieties
in their rattery.
13) Breeder charges more for popular varieties.
14) Breeder breeds wild rats or “hybrids”.
15) Breeder’s pedigree only offers names and colors of the rat’s
ancestors. Breeder cannot share more in-depth
knowledge of those rats.
16) Breeder provides minimal care or skips on important factors of
17) Breeder does not have a working relationship with a vet or
avoids taking seriously ill or injured animals to the vet.
18 ) Breeder knowingly sells sick or injured animals.
19) Breeder does not observe proper quarantine.
20) Breeder is willing to ship by illegal means.
21) Breeder sells to pet stores or pet expos, or provides rats as
22) Breeder will not take back animals they have produced.
23) Breeder asks for donations to keep their rattery running.
24) Breeder does not have an involved adoption procedure or detailed
25) Breeder also breeds another species.
The following information was also formerly published on the now
nonexistent Black Wolf Rattery website:
Breeder flags that are not "red flags"
There are some “flags”, or characteristics and behaviors, that some
people may view unfavorably. Some of these are
not really “red flags” though. They may in fact be the sign of a
1) Breeder does not allow visitors into the rattery.
2) Breeder charges an adoption fee.
3) Breeder uses inbreeding or line-breeding as tools.
4) Breeder admits there are health problems in the line.
5) Breeder specializes in one or two varieties only.
6) Breeder also breeds another species.
7) Breeder has “quarantine homes” set up.
8 ) Breeder shows their animals.
9) Breeder is a member of one or several clubs.
10) Breeder makes a special effort to keep in touch with adopters.
11) Breeder specializes in unstandardized varieties, but is not
making up names for standardized varieties.
12) Breeder has a combined goal for bettering health, temperament,
type, and color.
13) Breeder weans babies at five weeks of age.
14) Breeder has an involved adoption procedure that requires the
adopter to answer detailed questions, and requires
the adopter to provide home address and phone number.
15) Breeder’s pedigrees offer names and colors, but breeder is also
able to provide detailed information about the rats
on the pedigree.
The following more detailed list is from the
Rescue and Rehab website:
As a rescue organisation of pet rats we potentially see what can
only be deemed as some of the worst cases of not only
breeding but also misinformation regarding the proper care of
domesticated rats. Some breeders breed to better the pet
rats and we call these breeders Hobby Breeders, their goal is to
better the health and temperament of pet rats by
breeding only healthy and sociable animals. These breeders do this
at a huge cost to themselves and only ask for a
small adoption fee to show that you (the adopter) are willing to
care for and provide for the animal properly.
There are also other people that call themselves “breeders” however
they are what we call commercial breeders.
Commercial breeders have very little interest in the end result of
their litters and will generally supply to whomever is
interested in paying the fee be it a pet shop, snake keeper (for
either Live feeding or Killing and then freezing) or
anyone else they think will pay the price. These breeders are the
ones we would like you to be very aware of because
although their rats may seem very healthy at the time of purchase
you could well end up with a very unhealthy rat or
one that suffers from incurable diseases for the rest of its life.
There are some “Red Flags” that we will list below to
help guide you when looking at potential places to adopt your new
family member(s) from. If in doubt go away and
have a think about it, or find someone else to deal with.
Aquariums or fully enclosed cages which provide little to no
ventilation are not suitable for rats. Hobby breeders will
NOT recommend or encourage the use of these types of housing for
adoptive families. If the breeder you are looking
into says that these types of homes are suitable then find someone
else to deal with. Hobby breeders will occasionally
use Aquariums for their new mums and babies to avoid the pinkys
(newborn baby rats aka Rittens) from escaping but
they are only used for a very short time and then transferred to a
larger more ventilated home.
Getting offered the “pick of the litter” is a BIG red flag. The pick
always goes to the breeder(s) as this enables them to
continue to strengthen their own breeding lines with the healthiest
babies. Hobby breeders breed to improve or
strengthen their lines which they cannot do if they do not get “the
pick”. Commercial breeders do not care to
strengthen their lines so they will offer you the pick of the
litter. If this occurs find another person to adopt your babies
from because the chances are they are not babies that have healthy
parents so they themselves are probably not going
to be as healthy as you would expect from a breeder.
Should you find a breeder that is asking for donations it is fairly
safe to suspect that they are commercial breeders.
Hobby breeders know that breeding rats is not cheap, their purchase
fee only helps with a small percentage of the
overall cost of that particular rat, the hobby breeder absorbs the
majority of the cost themselves. The hobby breeder
breeds for themselves, for the overall improvement of rats, towards
their own goals for strengthening their own
breeding lines. The hobby breeder absorbs this cost so that they get
the “pick” of the litters to be able to continue with
their own breeding programs. It is therefore the hobby breeders
responsibility to pay for their hobby. You are generally
asked by the hobby breeder to pay a small fee to show that you are
serious about your commitment to the animal(s).
The choice of who you want mated or a breeder mating multiple
rats to keep up with buyer demand. Commercial
breeders will sometime allow you to decide who you would like mated
or breed multiple litters all together to provide a
larger quantity of rats for purchase. Again the commercial breeders
are only trying to meet demand with little regard
for the animals they are bringing into this world, the babies are
also lacking in confidence when being handled because
the commercial breeder has not had enough time to socialise all of
them. Hobby breeders on the other hand will breed
based on their own experience and knowledge of the lines they are
using. Hobby breeders keep strict records so that
they know all background information to make an informed decision
about what traits they would like to strengthen
and those that they would like to breed out. Therefore they will not
be influenced by a buyers wants or the pet
industries needs and will only breed what they themselves have time
to properly socialise.
Breeders who sell their animals to pet shops or as snake food are
NOT hobby breeders. Hobby breeders track their rats
(for the rats natural lives whether purchased, in the breeders care
or in foster care) so they can further their knowledge
of their lines which you would be unable to do when supplying to
these type of places. Purchasing rats from a breeder
that supports pet shops or live feedings is only encouraging
irresponsible breeding practices. All hobby breeders are
attached to their litters and parents of the litters and would never
put them in the hands of someone who would not
carry on caring and treating the animals like a valued family
If the breeder you are speaking with claims to have bred out all
illness and disease like tumors or Myco then they are
outright lying to you. Find someone honest to deal with.
Breeder has too many animals. This is a tough one to decide as one
person may only be able to handle 10 rats at a time
while others can comfortably care for and handle more. No matter how
many animals a breeder has that person should
be able to care for and properly socialize all the animals in their
care, including their litters. If you visit the breeders
rattery take note of conditions that you see. There will be a
distinctive animal smell however you shouldn’t feel ill or
overwhelmed by it. If your nose and eyes begin to get irritated and
sore one would assume that there is a high
concentrate of ammonia in the air which is also one of the biggest
causes of respiratory illness is rats. Avoid this rattery
at all costs.
If the breeder always has litters available this is another sign
that things are not as they appear. Hobby breeders will
generally have large breaks between their litters to give themselves
time to socialise the babies and get all the
information they require about health etc. Breeding is tiring and
very time consuming so it is only normal for hobby
breeders to want to give themselves and the animals some R&R time.
Commercial breeders on the other hand will try
to breed as many animals as possible to make the most money. If the
breeder you are considering adopting from always
has litters available tread carefully as any animals that you adopt
will more than likely be antisocial or have behavioral
issues due to their previous living conditions and lack of
socialisation. The breeders that are always breeding will also
have a tough time keeping up with the “paperwork” about their
parings and consequent health issues.
All good breeders breed with the intention of strengthening their
lines thus meaning that they intend to keep at least
one or possibly more from any litter from their carefully planned
matings. If the breeder you are talking to has
expressed that they are not interested in keeping any of the animals
that result from their breedings it should raise a
“red flag” and you should investigate further. Hobby breeders only
breed to health achieve their goals for their
breeding program. Responsible hobby breeders carefully select their
paring (female and male to be mated) based on
qualities that they would like to strengthen (ie health, temperament
etc) or weaken. Therefore it is only natural that
they would want to keep some of the litter to be able to continue
using this line to breed stronger rats in the long run.
Commercial breeders are not as interested in strengthening their
breeding program so will generally keep the
“breeders” (adult rats) but sell all the resulting babies to make a
At what age does the breeder start using the rats for breeding
purposes? Although this subject is one that is difficult to
determine a “correct” age there are some things that most ethical
breeders agree on. Any breeder that breeds from rats
under 4 months of age is NOT a responsible breeder. At 4 months of
age the rats are still growing and any potential
health or behavior issues may not have become obvious. Many good
breeders will wait until the animals are 6 months
of age or older before deciding whether or not to use them for their
breeding program. Sometimes breeders will not
even consider breeding from their females until 9 months of age once
growth has slowed. Anyone who uses females
older than 18 months of age is not acting in the animals best
interests and should be avoided.
If the breeder you are communicating with weans their litters before
4 weeks of age take this as a “red flag”. Breeders
that wean babies before 4 weeks of age is not allowing their litters
to mature enough before trying to separate them
from their mother and sell them. Most hobby breeders will agree that
litters should be allowed to stay with their mum
for at least 4 weeks although 5 weeks is better. By this time all of
the litter should be eating and drinking from bowls.
Anyone that is forcing weaning before 4- 5 weeks of age is in a rush
to get rid of the result of their breeding, possibly
causing early health and behavior issues just so they can produce
more litters for profit.
Ethical breeders do not kill (cull) any offspring of their litters
unless there is an untreatable or incurable disease or
injury. Hobby breeders will rehome or try to rehome animals that
they do not want to use for their breeding programs
and that is totally acceptable as long as they inform the new family
of any problems with that particular animal ie
deformed limb etc. Some breeders choose to kill (cull) animals they
have no wish to breed from, this is totally
unacceptable and a definite deal breaker. Breeders that kill (cull)
the offspring they have chosen to create, by
intentionally paring a male and female, have very little regard for
the lives they are helping create. Breeders who kill
(cull) their young are also jeopardising their breeding program
because any health issues that may be present later in
those animals lives will obviously not be noted. Any good breeder
keeps careful, up to date records on the health and
temperament of all the animals they have helped create.
Hobby breeders are always breeding to better their line which means
they always have goals that include health,
temperament, colour and type. Those breeders that only choose to
focus on one aspect ie: colour, are not breeding to
better pet rats. It is irrelevant whether they are breeding to meet
show standards or not, the goal should always be
about strengthening all aspects of the animal. Health and
temperament are the 2 most important aspects when
choosing a mating pair. A hobby breeder, who keeps excellent records
on all of their animals will look at the health and
temperament, of not only the parents, but also that of their
siblings, parents and grandparents to allow them to make a
well informed decision based on facts that they have collected
before making a final decision about their breeding pair.
It is not enough to just have a seemingly healthy and well
socialised pair and breed them because there could be genetic
issues that the breeder is not aware of because they did not have
adequate information to make an informed decision.
Hobby breeders will charge the same adoption fee regardless of the
coat type or colour. This is because all the animals
are treated and thought of as equally important as each other. Those
breeders that are breeding for a profit will more
than likely charge a higher fee for the unusual coat types or
colours ie blazes, rex’s, double rex etc. Hobby breeders
normally charge between $15.00 - $40.00 (AUD) per rat depending on
the individual breeder. Anyone charging more
than this could be breeding for the money not to better the breed in
most cases. If the breeder you are making enquiries
with keeps changing the price on you, it is probably safe to think
they are trying to make more money off this sale for
their own financial gain. If this is occurring I would highly
recommend you search for another breeder to deal with.
This list is by no means a way of telling you who you can and cannot
adopt from but purely given as a guide to help
you find a ethical hobby breeder who only has the animals best
interests at heart. This kind of breeder is going to be
only willing to breed from animals that show good health,
temperament and longevity in the line. It should also be
noted that some people got into breeder as they use to breed rats
for feeding reptile, snake etc and decided to breed for
the pet population instead, making the change from Feeder Breeder to
Hobby breeder. Google is a great place to do a
name search on the Rattery name as well as the owner of the Rattery.
You will be surprised what you can learn from a
quick search of these things.